Monday, June 26, 2017

The Death of William Rufus

William Rufus, King of England, met his death in a hunting accident in the New Forest (2/8/1100). He was “accidentally” killed by an arrow loosed from the bow of one Sir Walter Tyrell, 3rd Lord of Poix. After Rufus was struck down, Tyrell panicked and fled to France. As a result of his death, Rufus’ brother Henry seized the English throne for himself and was crowned King of England.

William of Malmesbury in his “Chronicle of the Kings of the English” (c. 1128) had this to say:
“The next day he went into the forest… He was attended by a few persons… Walter Tirel remained with him, while the others, were on the chase. The sun was now declining, when the king, drawing his bow and letting fly an arrow, slightly wounded a stag which passed before him… The stag was still running… The king, followed it a long time with his eyes, holding up his hand to keep off the power of the sun’s rays. At this instant Walter decided to kill another stag. Oh, gracious God! the arrow pierced the king’s breast.

On receiving the wound the king uttered not a word; but breaking off the shaft of the arrow where it projected from his body… This accelerated his death. Walter immediately ran up, but as he found him senseless, he leapt upon his horse, and escaped with the utmost speed. Indeed there were none to pursue him: some helped his flight; others felt sorry for him. The king’s body was placed on a cart and conveyed to the cathedral at Winchester… blood dripped from the body all the way. Here he was buried within the tower.”

For his own part, Henry, now King of England, issued Tyrell with a pardon. This action alone has led many to conclude that Henry was somehow behind the death of his brother.

These are the “facts” such as they are and such as they have come down to us through the ages.

But there are a number of other, most intriguing, points to consider.
(1) – Tyrell was innocent.
(2) – That this was an accident.
(3) – That this was a premeditated murder instigated by Henry.
(4) – That this was a premeditated murder instigated by a third party.

Scenario 1 – Innocent:
From the safety of France, Tyrell claimed that his was innocent of the death of the King William.

Abbot Suger, Confessor to King Louis VII of France, was apparently a friend of Tyrell’s and provided him with a safe haven following his flight from England. Abbot Suger claimed that: “but I have often heard him, when he had nothing to fear nor to hope, solemnly swear that on the day in question he was not in the part of the forest where the king was hunting, nor ever saw him in the forest at all.”

So, why flee – why not just claim to have become separated from the King and was elsewhere in the New Forest; or, why not claim to have just come upon the dying King. There were no witnesses to the actual death – Tyrell could only have been accused if he had been seen with the King by others.

Scenario 2 – Accident:
It was claimed that Tyrell “let loose a wild shot at a passing stag. However, instead of striking the stag as intended, the arrow pierced William in the chest, puncturing his lungs.”

However, could a man whom many claimed knows how to shoot the deadliest shots have been so reckless or careless in his aim?

Peter of Blois (1070 – c.1117) writes: “The said Walter, the author of his death, though unwittingly so, escaped from the midst of them, crossed the sea, and arrived safe home in Normandy.”

“Tyrrel, without informing any one of the accident, put spurs to his horse, hastened to the sea-shore, embarked for France, and joined the crusade in an expedition to Jerusalem; a penance which he imposed on himself for this involuntary crime.” (Source: David Hume “The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in 1688“, Foreword by William B. Todd, 6 vols. (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund 1983). Vol. 1.)

It was not uncommon for deaths to occur accidentally when hunting – even today, hunters are often mistake for their prey and are killed or wounded by other hunters. Carelessness is not atypical of one period of history alone. Again, why flee. Tyrell could not have known the mood of Henry nor expected clemency for the death of the King, no matter how accidental, hence his immediate flight.

Scenario 3 – Murder by Henry:
Henry himself directly benefited from the death of his older brother – this was a well known fact.

Henry was himself a part of the hunting group that day in the New Forest, though not, as Henry himself points out, with his brother William. Henry maintained that he was in another part of the New Forest when Rufus met his end.

But, if involved, could Henry have been assured of his own position. Henry had an older brother, Robert Duke of Normandy – there was always the chance that Robert might seize the throne for himself or be acclaimed King. Even during the reign of Rufus there had been a rebellion in favour of Robert – William was disliked and Robert was popular. Henry’s own position was uncertain.

Henry’s hasty journey to secure the Treasury at Winchester and then have himself crowned King. Henry, however, had nothing to fear from Robert who was on Crusade at the time of Rufus’ death.

In fact, William Rufus was not the only member of the Conqueror’s family to meet an untimely death in the New Forest:
* Richard, Duke of Bernay, second son of William the Conqueror of Matilda of Flanders (c.1075 – 1081); brother of William II Rufus, Henry I and Robert of Normandy.
* Henry, son of Robert of Normandy (above) and Sybilla of Conversano
* Richard, illegitimate son of Robert of Normandy (d.1100)

What better place to rid oneself of witnesses or potential rivals for the throne than to arrange a “hunting accident”. Suspicion would not fall so easily upon one’s head – I guess a more than lack of direct heirs (excluding Robert whom Henry later imprisoned for the term of his natural life) left the throne well and truly open for Henry I.

And as for Henry I pardoning Tyrell, one would assume he did so for one of three reasons:
(1) Tyrell really was innocent;
(2) it really was an accident; or
(3) Tyrell actually did kill William on behalf of Henry.

William of Malmesbury writes, in his “Chronicle of the Kings of the English” (c. 1128): “he leapt upon his horse, and escaped with the utmost speed. Indeed there were none to pursue him: some helped his flight; others felt sorry for him.”

Scenario 4 – Revenge:
So what exactly was Tyrell’s role – was he the instrument of death of a “third party” bent on revenge. Quite possibly – so what are the known facts about Tyrell.

(1) Walter Tyrell was born in England (c.1065) and yet was made Lord of Poix – in Ponthieu, France. Poix wasn’t associated with Normandy (at the time) – in fact, Poix was some fifteen miles from Amiens, and its lordship was of considerable importance.

Walter has been identified by Pere Anselme who “occurs in an agreement with the [Ralf] Count of Amiens, 1087, and who, with his wife “Adelice,” founded the Priory of St. Denis de Poix [confirmed by Geoffrey, Bishop of Amiens], and built the Abbey of St. Pierre de Sélincourt.” (Source: JH Round “Feudal England” 1895).

Walter Tyrell was not one of those who came to England at the time of the Conquest (1066) – though it has been suggested that he was possibly the grandson of one Walter Tyrell who led a company from Poix at Senlac (1066). JH Round in his 1895 “Feudal England” claims Tyrell was actually a Frenchman, being the third of that name to bear the title.

So what exactly was Tyrell doing at the court of the English King.

The following article, The Royal Hunt, claims that Tyrell was not actually a member of William’s household but instead was invited on the hunt to discuss “political matters”.

Peter of Blois says: “For there had come from Normandy, to visit king William, a very powerful baron, Walter Tirel by name. The king received him with the most lavish hospitality, and having honored him with a seat at his table, was pleased, after the banquet was concluded, to give him an invitation to join him in the sport of hunting.”

So, what political matters were afoot that were so important that Tyrell was invited to hunt alone with the King – away from prying eyes and eavesdroppers.

At the time of Rufus’ death, he was engaged in a rebellion of nobles in County of Maine, who were supported by the French King.

Let us consider the following excerpts from David Hume’s “The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in 1688“:
“ ….. he found the province of Maine still exposed to his intrigues and incursions” – this being the intrigues of the French King [1097].

“William, who was hunting in the new forest, when he received intelligence of this hostile attempt, was so provoked, that he immediately turned his horse, and galloped to the sea-shore at Dartmouth; declaring, that he would not stop a moment till he had taken vengeance for the offence” [1099].
“By this vigour and celerity, he delivered the citadel of Mans from its present danger; and pursuing Helie into his own territories, he laid siege to Majol, a small castle in those parts: But a wound, which he received before this place, obliged him to raise the siege; and he returned to England.” [1100].

The Lordship of Poix was associated with the County of Maine. Could Walter Tyrell have been about to change his allegiance from Maine (and thus France), and turn towards England? Was Walter a spy for England (against France) at the court of Maine?

(2) We know that Tyrell made an advantageous marriage to one Adelize (1069 – 1138), the daughter of Richard Fitz Gilbert. This, it seems to me, to be quite remarkable considering Tyrell’s lack of serious “political” connections with the Conqueror and his family – before the hunting incident.

(3) It was said that Tyrell was one of Rufus’ “favourites”. Is there any evidence of this – well, Tyrell alone was with Rufus hunting in the New Forest. Most other members of the Court were quite apart from the King.

Was there any evidence of the allegation that Tyrell argued with Rufus the night before the hunt? None that was mentioned by any of the contemporary chroniclers.

There was, however, one man whom none have suspected despite his deep and well publicized hatred of Rufus. Who was this man, none other than Anselm of Bec, Archbishop of Canterbury, the highest prelate in England!

The Case Against Anselm:
What exactly was the “relationship” between the King of England and the Archbishop of Canterbury?

Well, let’s begin with a couple of interesting facts about Anselm:
(1) Anselm and Rufus clashed famously and furiously over the question of jurisdiction over the Church. This would be an alarmingly familiar scenario to the Pope, who was battling the German King, Henry IV, over the question of ecclesiastic investitures; and would later reverberate in the clash between King Henry II of England and his Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Beckett.

But at the heart of this battle of wills was the fact that Rufus had, for the past five years, kept the See of Canterbury deliberately vacant for the sole purpose of collecting and keeping those revenues for himself. Only, when the cold hand of death stretched toward him did Rufus finally concede and appoint to the vacant See, Anselm. When he recovered, Rufus found that Anselm, far from being malleable was proving himself a constant thorn in the royal side. It became Rufus’ chief desire to be rid of the Archbishop ……. “He could elevate him, but not remove him; he could make, but not unmake.” In fact, “…… political troubles came so thick and heavy on the King, some of his powerful nobles being in open rebellion, that he felt it necessary to dissemble and defer the gratification of his vengeance on the man he hated more than any personage in England.” (Source: Beacon Lights of History, Volume III, Part 1 – Saint Anselm A.D. 1033 – 1109).

Such was the “professional” relationship between King and Archbishop – one was a gentle, God-fearing man, devoted to the interests of the Church; the other was a hard, unscrupulous, cunning despot. Or so it would seem.

(2) Anselm (d.1109), along with a number of other well-known clerics, including St.Bernard of Clairvaux, Aelred of Rievaulx (110 -1167), Ivo of Chartres (c.1040 – 1115), Bishop Baudri of Bourgeuil (1046 – 1130) and his friend, Marbod of Rennes (1035-1123), all wrote “homo-erotic” poems and prose.

To whom were these poems written or dedicated – typically, young men; though in the case of Baudri and Marbod, it was also to each other, where there was “an emphasis on pederasty”. (Source: John Boswell “Christianity, Social Tolerance and Homosexuality” Pub: University of Chicago Press, 1980).

Anselm wrote many letters to monks, male relatives and others that contained passionate expressions of attachment and affection. These letters were typically addressed “dilecto dilectori,” sometimes translated as “to the beloved lover.” As such, these letters have been characterised as having “homosexual” tendancies by later chroniclers and historians.

So, what has this to do with William Rufus, King of England, whose own sexuality was questionable, and the cause of so much gossip?

Many labels have been attributed to William Rufus and his sexuality. He has invariably been labeled “bisexual” and “homosexual” but there we must stop. These labels are modern day inventions – or rather, 19th century inventions.

There were other labels used when describing a man who succumbed to the “unnatural vice”. In fact, Henry I, brother and successor of William Rufus, attempted to clean up the court of the “unnatural vice” and laid down a series of penalties for “those who commit the shameful sin of sodomy“. Later, Thomas Aquinas in his “Summa Theologica” refers to homosexuality as “peccata contra naturam” or “the sin against nature”.

We all know that William opposed the appointment of Anselm and that their animosity was the cause of much conflict between church and state. But could it be much more personal than that.

Anselm himself was one of the proponents of the medieval “homo-erotic” poetry – could his “advances” (ie: poetry / letters of love) have been directed at Rufus. Could these “advances” have not only been unwanted but ridiculed (especially amongst the court favourites) and spurned – which was the true cause of the deep hatred between Anselm and William. Was Anselm merely the scorned “potential” lover??

Was Anselm hoping to take advantage of what we in modern terms would label as William’s homosexuality on a personal level, and use his role as potential lover to enhance his own clerical position. Anselm, as we know, was just as manipulative as the next cleric – afterall he saw himself as another Lanfranc. Could his sudden hatred and vilification of William have been used to disguise his own earthly failings as a mortal man.

Yes, this is speculative in the extreme and there is absolutely no proof whatsoever that there was or wasn’t some form of more “personal” or possibly “homosexual” relationship between these two antagonists.

And so to the “ecclesiastical” version of Rufus’ death.
“It was remarked in that age, that Richard, an elder brother of William’s, perished by an accident in the new forest; Richard, his nephew, natural son of duke Robert, lost his life in the same place, after the same manner: And all men, upon the king’s fate, exclaimed, that, as the Conqueror had been guilty of extreme violence, in expelling all the inhabitants of that large district, to make room for his game, the just vengeance of heaven was signalized, in the same place, by the slaughter of his posterity.”

This I have previously documented above – death by “hunting accident” was not an uncommon event.
“See the just hand of God upon kings usurping wrongfully upon other men’s grounds, as did William the Conqueror, their father, in making this New Forest, plucking down divers churches and townships the compass of thirty miles about. Here therefore appeareth, that although men cannot revenge, yet God revengeth either in them, or in their posterity, &c. This king, as he always used concubines, so left he no issue legitimate behind him. His life was such, that it is hard for a story, that should tell the truth, to say whether he was more to be commended or reproved. Among other vices in him, especially is to be rebuked in him unmeasurable and unreasonable covetousness; insomuch that he coveted (if he might) to be every man’s heir.” (Source: Foxe’s “Book of Martyrs“)

To clerical chroniclers, such an “Act of God” was a just end for a wicked king.
These clerics referred to Rufus as “… a man much pitied …. [who] had a soul which they could not save…”Rufus’ quarrel with the saintly Anselm ensured that “it [was] no wonder his memory should be blackened by the historians of that order.” (Source: David Hume “The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in 1688” (Foreword by William B. Todd, 6 vols. Indianapolis: Liberty Fund 1983). Vol. 1.)

Could the saintly Anselm have seen Tyrell as an instrument of God with which to strike down this faithless enemy of the Church (and of himself). Anselm certainly had the motive, but as for the opportunity – could Anselm have been assured that Tyrell would act on behalf of the “Church”. In fact, the question to be asked is: could Anselm stoop to murder to rid himself of this most despotic enemy. Tempting … but unlikely. With the benefit of hindsight we know that Rufus’ death did not end the quarrel between the Crown and the Church in England.

So then, who else not only had a beef with Rufus, but was also in a position to utilize Tyrell without Tyrell giving the game away. The only reasonable “suspects” would have to be exceedingly close to Tyrell. His own family: no motive or opportunity there. What about his in-laws: motive – yes; opportunity – yes; weapon – yes.

So then, who else not only had a beef with Rufus, but was also in a position to utilize Tyrell without Tyrell giving the game away. The only reasonable “suspects” would have to be exceedingly close to Tyrell. His own family: no motive or opportunity there. What about his in-laws: motive – yes; opportunity – yes; weapon – yes.

The Case Against the House of Clare:
(1) The founder of the de Clare family was one Godfrey (also named Geoffrey), (bc.970 – dc.1015), who was an illegitimate son of Richard I, Duke of Normandy. Godfrey was the father of one Gilbert, surnamed “Crispin” (bc.1000 – 1040) who was Count of Bionne and Eu, and was one of the protectors or guardians of the infant William, Duke of Normandy. Gilbert made the ultimate sacrifice in the “execution” of his duties when he was murdered (1040).

(2) The sons of Gilbert “Crispin” (above) were named Baldwin and Richard (1030 – 1090). Now it has been speculated, though definitely not proved, that Richard may have been Gilbert’s illegitimate son by one Arlette/Herleve of Falaise, mother of Duke William of Normandy (himself an “illegitimate” son of a union between Arlette and Robert, Duke of Normandy). Thus, Richard has been referred to as William’s “half-brother”. I have not personally seen any documentary evidence that would support this.

It has also been speculated in the “Annals of the Four Masters” that Richard was descended from Robert “the Devil”, Duke of Normandy – himself the father of William “the Conqueror”. However, this is not the case.

Further, Baldwin and Richard had been dispossessed of their father’s lands by their “uncle” Richard II, Duke of Normandy, and had fled to the court of Baldwin V of Flanders after the murder of their father. The County of Eu was then given by Richard II to his half-brother, William.

These lands were restored by William, Duke of Normandy, who celebrated his marriage to Matilda of Flanders at Eu. However, Eu itself remained with the descendants of William.

(3) Richard (above) married one Rohese (daughter of Walter Giffard of Normandy), and was the father of notably Roger (who inherited the Norman patrimony) and Gilbert (who inherited the English patrimony) – and was the father-in-law of Walter Tyrell, who married Adeliza, Richard’s daughter. Other children were born of the marriage of Richard and Rohese.

Richard and his brother Baldwin both accompanied William of Normandy on his invasion of England (1066). Both, though Richard especially, were well rewarded by William after the “spoils of war” were divided. Baldwin was appointed Guardian of Exeter and Sheriff of Devonshire, and Richard was granted 170 manors in Suffolk. Richard (also known as Richard of Tonbridge) adopted the surname “Clare” after one of his large estates in Suffolk. Richard was also appointed to William’s Council, and as a trusted friend, was given the position of Chief Justiciar. Richard thus found himself as one of the regents for England during William’s absences in Normandy, and he played an important role of the suppression of the revolt of the Earls against William (1075).

(4) Richard de Clare (father of aforementioned Gilbert and Roger) had been involved in a rebellion against Rufus (1088). Along with many other leading Norman barons, he supported Robert, eldest son of William the Conqueror, as a suitable heir. Richard was forced to surrender and enter a monastery where he died three years later (d.1090). Gilbert kept the family estates and was, to all intents and purposes, reconciled with the King. Gilbert fought with the King against the Scots (1095), and possibly took part in Rufus’ campaigns against Wales and in Normandy.

The House of Clare certainly benefited from making their “peace” with Rufus – they could position someone in close enough, unsuspected, to “do the deed”.

However, another conspiracy of nobles against Rufus occurred (1095), led by Robert Mowbray Earl of Northumberland, Richard de Tunbridge and Roger de Lacy. William, Count of Eu was also said to have also been a part of this conspiracy to put Stephen, Count of Aumale (nephew of William the Conqueror) on the throne instead of Rufus. The plot was discovered – this was treason.

Who then was William, Count of Eu (bc.1055 – d.1096) and what was his relationship with the House of Clare?
William was the son of Robert, Count of Eu, who was the son of one Guillaume de Hieme (bc. 955 – db. 9/1/1039). Guillaume or William (bc.985) was the son of: Richard I “the Fearless” Duke of Normandy (b.28/8/933 – d.20/11/996) – by a concubine. Said William (d.1096) was married to one Beatrice de Busli (bc.1065), daughter of Domesday baron, Roger de Busli of Tickhill. William had two brothers: Ralph d’Eu (bc.1043 – dc.1090) and Robert d’Eu (bc.1057).

Now, back to the plot against Rufus (1095):
Oderic claims that William was accused by his brother-in-law, the Earl of Chester, for flaunting his extramarital affairs and thus neglecting Chester’s sister. William was charged with treason at court (Autumn 1095). At Salisbury, William was formally accused and challenged to a trial by combat by Geoffrey Baynard, former Sherrif of Yorkshire (1096). (Source: David Crounch “Normans: The History of a Dynasty”, Hambledon Press 2002)

“The count d’Eu denied his concurrence in the plot (c.1095-1096); and to justify himself, fought, in the presence of the court at Windsor, a duel with Geoffrey Bainard, who accused him. But being worsted in the combat, he was condemned to be castrated, and to have his eyes put out.” (Source: David Hume “The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in 1688” (Foreword by William B. Todd, 6 vols. Indianapolis: Liberty Fund 1983). Vol. 1.)

Why would the death of William, Count of Eu have any bearing on the House of Clare?
William, Count of Eu’s ancestor was an illegitimate son of Richard I, Duke of Normandy, as was the ancestor of the House of Clare. Thus, they were related – and in this day and age, kith and kin were important in forging alliances, both political and social.

But, more importantly, Oderic says that one Gilbert de Clare was another of those who plotted against Rufus and then turned on his co-conspirators and thus saved his own neck. (Source: David Crouch “Normans: The History of a Dynasty”, Hambledon Press 2002)

Gilbert de Clare was cousin to William of Eu! And the “English” estates of William (the Honour of Striguil) went to one Walter de Clare, the brother of Gilbert de Clare (above), and thus a younger son of Richard de Clare. These estates remained with the House of Clare.

(5) The sons of Richard de Clare, Gilbert (fitzRichard) and Roger, and their brother-in-law, Tyrell, were all present in the New Forest as members of the hunting party when Rufus was killed (1100). Tyrell escaped and was later “pardoned” by Henry I who succeeded Rufus as King of England. The House of Clare were public in their support of the accession of Henry I, not Robert, as King of England.

(6) Gilbert (fitzRichard) de Clare was the father of one Gilbert fitzGilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Pembroke (below).

(7) Gilbert (fitzGilbert) de Clare married Isabel de Beaumont. Isabel’s father Robert had fought with William I at Senlac (1066) – and she had previously been the favourite mistress of Henry I. Gilbert and the House of Clare family (with its extended and intertwining branches) would prosper considerably under Henry I.

* Walter Tyrell’s sons were permitted to keep their father’s lands and estates.
* Rohese Giffard’s brother Walter was created Earl of Buckingham, and another, William was created Bishop of Winchester.
* Richard (1062 – 1107), son of Richard de Clare (d.1090), and brother-in-law of Tyrell was made Abbot of Ely by Henry I.
* Robert (d.1134), another son of Richard de Clare (d.1090), was Steward to Henry I.
* Members of the House of Clare were in constant attendance at the court of Henry I.
* Gilbert de Clare (d.1115) led an army into Wales (1107) where he defeated the Welsh and managed to secure for himself, the important Lordship of Striguil. His children would marry well into the nobility.

Could this then simply have been a premeditated act of revenge on the part of the House of Clare – and Tyrell was the means, being a favourite of the King, and maybe less likely to be suspected??? The evidence, though certainly circumstantial, is highly plausible.

So many plots, so many questions, so many suspects ……

Or are we, as historian and author C.Warren Hollister suggests, being tempted to “look for some hint of human calculation such as we would not seek in the reportedly accidental deaths of lesser men ….. ”

 ~~~ originally posted October 2010

Sunday, June 25, 2017

Medieval Women and Warfare

Since time immemorial, women have stood alongside their men-folk in defence of home and hearth. This is purely a survival instinct – for women have had a far deal more to lose should home and hearth fall to invaders.

Women have long been considered the “spoils of war” regardless of time and history, whether they be carried off as unwilling wives, concubines or slaves. And status did not exempt one – no, for the higher the woman’s status, the greater her “value” as a prize.

A women’s role in warfare can be divided into a number of different categories:

(1) Women who actively contributed to the defence of their homes, estates, or castles. 
Women undertook this defensive role usually in their father’s or husband’s stead.
* Agnes Randolph, Countess of Dunbar ~~~ defied the Earl of Salisbury for five months when he laid siege to her castle at Dunbar (January – June 1338).
Caterina Sfoza
Caterina Sforza, Countess of Forli ~~~ rebelled against the incursions of Cesare Borgia, son of Pope Alexander VI.
“My Prince, I advise you to treat with Caterina Sforza under a white flag. Her troops are too strongly encrenellated in the fortress, and it will take months to root the rebels out. For everyday we fight, more of your loyal troops are slaughtered, more of your good citizens have property damaged or destroyed, and the crops go unharvested and children starve. The battle must be ended.” (Source: Niccolo Machiavelli “The Prince”)

* Eschiva of Tiberias ~~~ defended her town and castle against the forces of Saladin (July 1187). The attempted relief of Tiberias by the Crusaders led to the fateful Battle of Hattin.

* Stephanie of Milly, Lady of Outlrejourdain ~~~ defended her castle of Kerak against both Nur ed-Din (1170s) and Saladin (1183).

* Jimena ~~~ led defence of Valencia (1101 – 1102), though forced to abandon city in the face of overwhelming odds.

(2) Women who acted in a military capacity, similar to a modern-day general of an armed force. These were usually noblewomen who did not necessarily take to the battlefield. However, there are instances of some women who actually did take to the battlefield at the head of their armies.

Deborah ~~~ gathered and led her Israelite army against the Canaanites (c.1125BC).

Zenobia ~~~ led her army with the Romans against Persia (260sAD) and against Rome (270sAD).

Artemesia ~~~ commanded a small flotilla of warships as part of the navy of the Persian King Xerxes against the Greeks (280BC).
“She had obtained the sovereign power after the death of her husband; and, though she had now a son grown up, yet her brave spirit and manly daring sent her forth to the war, when no need required her to adventure.” (Source: Herodotus)

* Boudicca ~~~ led her army into battle against the legions of Roman in Britain (60sAD).
“the whole island rose under the leadership of Boudicca, a lady of royal descent – for Britons make no distinctions of sex in their appointment of commanders.” (Source: Tacitus)

* Thamar of Georgia ~~~ successfully led her troops in crushing internal rebellions (1189 – 1191), and against the Turks (1190s – 1200s).

* Isabella of Castile ~~~ during the war of succession, she rode hundreds of miles to gain support for her cause – at great personal cost; and she personally took to the battlefield and captured the city of Toledo (1475).

Philippa of Hainault ~~~ raised an army in the absence of her husband, King Edward III, to defend England’s northern borders from the invading Scots. Though Philippa was not actually present on the battlefield of Neville’s Cross (30/09/1346), credit for the victory goes to her.
“So she sent out a summons to men at arms throughout the kingdom of England, wherever she thought they would be, and told them to be at Newcastle-upon-Tyne on a certain day, to resist the Scots.” (Source: Jean Froissart, Chroniques: Livre I, Le manuscrit d’Amiens, Bibliothèque municipale no. 486, ed. George T. Diller, vol. 2 (Geneva, 1992).)

* Empress Maud ~~~ she also fits into Category (5) as she led her army in defence of her succession rights.
“the empress rode every day with the army, and she gave good advice on the most difficult matters; in the whole army there was not a baron so skilled and experienced in war as she was, and there was much talk about her throughout England.” (Source: Histoire des Ducs de Normandie et des Rois d’Angleterre, ed. Francisque Michel, Paris, 1840).

* Matilda of Boulogne ~~~ whilst her husband King Stephen was a captive of Empress Maud, she raised an army to meet Maud on the field of battle.
“she sent for knights throughout all lands, wherever she could get them, and assembled such a great army that she besieged the empress and her son Henry and the king of Scotland and the earl of Leicester and many other noble barons all together in the city of Winchester.” (Source: Histoire des Ducs de Normandie et des Rois d’Angleterre, ed. Francisque Michel, Paris, 1840).
Aethelflaed - Lady of Mercians

* Urraca of Castile ~~~ forced to defend her inheritance against her husband Alfonso I of Aragon (1111), and to deal with internal strife from her nobles.

* Matilda of Canossa ~~~ with her mother Beatrice, led an army in support of the Papacy against the Holy Roman Emperor (1060s), and then by herself (1080s).

* Aethelflaed, Lady of Mercia ~~~ in conjunction with her brother Edward, she continued their father Alfred’s policy of resistance to the Viking incursions in Britain, obtaining victories on her own behalf.

(3) Women who disguised themselves as men in order to fight in battle. This occurrence became more usual from the 17th Century onwards.

Mary Read ~~~ fought in the Spanish War of Succession (1701 – 1704) as an armed cadet, a foot soldier and a cavalryman; and again in Holland in the infantry before “turning” pirate.

* Mother Ross (aka: Christine Davies) ~~~ a woman who purportedly passed as a male foot soldier and dragoon during the War of the Spanish Succession died on the 7th of July 1739 and was interred in the burying ground belonging to Chelsea Hospital with military honours.

(4) Women who actively fought at the head of an armed force, in a paid or “professional” capacity. These women were usually known as “Condottieri” or mercenaries. These Condottieri were renown throughout Italy from the mid-13th Century until the mid-16th Century. Many Condottieri were highly paid and “contracted” for a certain period of time. Their employer frequently changed. And it was not unknown for a Condottieri to acquire land or titles.

* Onorata Rodiano ~~~~ artist and soldier.
she “had entered the service of Oldrano Lampugnano as a cavalryman, and that was in the year 1423. She lived then with her name and her clothing changed under various captains and held various military offices.” (Source: Conrado Flameno Storia di Castelleone (1590).

(5) Women who led an armed force in the assertion of inheritance rights, either their own, their husband’s or their children’s rights.

Isabella of France, Queen of England ~~~ gathered about her an armed force consisting of mercenaries from Hainault and disaffected English nobles, and landed in England (1326) to overthrown the government and install her son in his father’s stead.

* Jeanne of Flanders, Countess of Montfort ~~~ she actively fought during the War of Succession in Britanny (1360s).
“The countess of Montfort was there in full armour, mounted on a swift horse and riding through the town, street by street, urging the people to defend the town well. She made the women of the town, ladies and others, dismantle the carriageways and carry the stones to the battlements for throwing at their enemies. And she had bombards and pots full of quick lime brought to keep the enemy busy.” (Source: Jean Froissart, Chroniques: Livre I, Le manuscrit d’Amiens, Bibliothèque municipale no. 486, ed. George T. Diller, vol. 2 (Geneva, 1992).)

Margaret of Anjou, Queen of England ~~~ during the War of the Roses, she fought valiantly to preserve the rights of her husband and then her son to rule as monarchs of England.

(6) Women who went on Crusade, though did not necessarily take an active role in fighting. Whilst their men-folk were actively engaged in the fighting, these women remained on the sidelines, at a safe distance.

(7) Women who did actively fought in the Crusades.
In this last category, it is very hard to list any single woman by name. On both the First and People’s Crusades, many women, usually of middle to low birth, did actually fight alongside their male crusading counterparts, as did quite a number of children. It was mostly out of the sheer need to survive.

Women and children would also have been used in the building of barricades or ditches, to aid in the defence of campsites or towns and cities. This was a common sight at Acre in 1291, before the city fell. Moslem chroniclers documented women acting not only in a defensive role but also in an attacking role, their sex only being identified after death.

* Margaret of Beverley ~~~ who was present at the siege of Jerusalem 1187
"‘During this seige, which lasted fifteen days, I carried out all’, she said, ‘of the functions of a soldier that I could. I wore a breastplate like a man; I came and went on the ramparts, with a cauldron on my head for a helmet. Though a woman, I seemed a warrior, I threw the weapon; though filled with fear, I learned to conceal my weakness.’ "]

( 8) Women who were members of Military Orders. Again, these women may not have been active “soldiers”.

* Female Hospitallers (more so in the 13th century)
These female Hospitallers could be not only consorores or donate, but also fully professed sisters who joined the Hospital in existing or newly founded houses specifically for sisters or in commanderies—sometimes even as commanders. (Source: Women in the Military Orders of the Crusades by M. Bom 2012). 

* Knights of St. John ~~~ these women were called “soeurs hospitalières” or “sisters of mercy”.
In England, Buckland was the site of a house of Hospitaller sisters from Henry II’s reign to 1540. In Aragon, there were Hospitaller convents in Sigena, San Salvador de Isot, Grisén, Alguaire, headed each by a commendatrix. In France they are found in Beaulieu (near Cahors), Martel and Fieux. The only other military order to have convents by 1300 was the order of Santiago, which had admitted married members since its foundation in 1175. and soon women were admitted and organized into convents of the order (late 12th, early 13th c.). The convents were headed by a commendatrix (in Spanish: commendadora) or prioress. There were a total of six in the late 13th century: Santa Eufenia de Cozuelos in northern Castile, San Spiritu de Salamanca, Santos-o-Vello in Portugal, Destriana near Astorga, San Pedro de la Piedra near Lérida, San Vincente de Junqueres. The order of Calatrava also had a convent in San Felices de los Barrios. (Source: Francois Velde’s

* Teutonic Knights ~~~ the Teutonic order accepted “consorores” who assumed the habit of the order and lived under its rule; they undertook menial and hospitaller functions.

As is clear, this is just a basic overview of the role women had to play in warfare throughout history.  There are many more examples, from many other nations that I have not forgotten nor ommitted purposely, but their stories will have to wait for another time.

Saturday, May 20, 2017

Ancient Prosthetics

After noticing a plethora of news articles documenting the discovery of artificial limbs at archaeological digs world wide, I began to bookmark these discoveries and the end result is this little collation:

Artificial Toes / Feet:

The fake toe from the Cairo museum in Egypt was found in 2000 in a tomb near the ancient city of Thebes. Archaeologists speculated the 50- to 60-year-old woman the prosthesis came from might have lost her toe due to complications from diabetes.

The wood and leather prosthesis dates from 1069 to 664 B.C., based on artifacts it was found within the mummy's burial chamber. This means it predates what was previously thought of as the earliest known functioning prosthesis, the Roman Capua Leg, a bronze artifact dating from about 300 B.C. The leg was once at the Royal College of Surgeons in London but was destroyed by bombing during World War II.

Replicas of a second false Egyptian right big toe on display at the British Museum in London, albeit without its mummy, will also be tested. This artifact, named the Greville Chester Great Toe after the collector who acquired it for the museum in 1881, is made from cartonnage, a sort of papier maché made using linen, glue and plaster. Based on the way the linen threads were spun, it dates from 1295 to 664 B.C.

From Stat News:
A medieval skeleton found in Austria has a unique appendage — an iron-and-wood prosthetic foot. Researchers say the 6th century remains are the oldest found in Europe with a prosthetic limb. The skeleton, found in a Frankish Empire-era cemetery, was outfitted with a wooden peg with an iron ring, perhaps covered in leather, which served as an artificial foot.

This toe removal clearly took place when the patient was alive, the team reports, because an intact layer of soft tissue covered the amputation site. What is more, the patient's missing toe had been replaced by a carefully crafted wooden toe, which attached to the foot and was kept in place by way of a series of wooden plates and leather strings.

From Daily Mail:
This is a bronze and wooden leg that was found in a Roman burial in Capua, Southern Italy. That has been dated to 300 BC although only a replica now remains as the original was destroyed in a bombing raid over London during the war.

In 2013, archeologists working in southern Austria found the grave of a man who lived during the 6th century A.D. But they didn't publish one of the most fascinating parts of the find until now: The man wore a prosthetic left foot. The prosthesis was crafted of wood and an iron ring, writes Elahe Izadi for The Washington Post, and the discovery marks one of the oldest examples of a prosthetic limb found in Europe. “When I saw that they had this prosthesis, I thought, ‘OK, this is something special,’” Michaela Binder, a bioarchaeologist with the Austrian Archaeological Institute, tells Megan Gannon for Atlas Obscura. The researchers note that the lower parts of his tibia and fibula as well as his foot are missing, but signs of healing on the bone ends show that the man survived the amputation. Other signs in his joints suggest that he actually used the prostheses, and it was not just a cosmetic device, according to the study recently published in the International Journal of Paleopathology.

About 1,500 years ago, there lived a man in Europe without a left foot. Instead, he wore a wooden prosthetic limb.  Archaeologists digging in southern Austria's Hemmaberg found the man's grave in 2013 but only recently revealed details about the prosthetic. The findings will be published in the International Journal of Paleopathology.

Archaeologists in Austria believe they have found Europe’s oldest prosthetic implant – a sixth-century wooden foot. The discovery was made in the grave of a man missing his left foot and ankle at Hemmaberg, southern Austria. At the end of his leg was an iron ring and remnants of a clump of wood and leather. Sabine Ladstätter, of the Austrian Archaeological Institute, said: “He appears to have got over the loss of his foot and lived for two more years at least with this implant, and walking pretty well.”

Artificial Hands:

From Healio:
The loss of a hand in combat did not stay Gen. Marcus Sergius from smiting ancient Rome’s Carthaginian foes. The general made himself an iron hand and got back into battle against Hannibal’s troops.  “...In two Services, he was wounded three and twenty times; by which means he had little use of either his Hands or his Feet” . Though Sergius was disabled, he was able to keep fighting with the aid of a slave.

An An early pioneer in ‘useful’ artificial hands was a German mercenary named Gottfried “Götz” von Berlichingen (1480-1562), who developed a hand with rudimentary series of gears and catches that allowed certain parts of the hand to move.

The skeleton is in excellent condition, intact except for the missing left foot and bottom of the left tibia and fibula. Where the missing bones would have been archaeologists found a circular iron band just under three inches in diameter. Two small iron rivets closed the band and decayed remains of wooden slats inside the ring were fixed to the ring with four iron nails. The shortened ends of the left tibia and fibia have dark stains that may be all that’s left of whatever organic material, probably wood or leather, that connected the prosthesis to the leg. The wood remnants and the position of the band in the grave indicate the device may have been a wooden leg with the iron band on the bottom.

Artificial Legs:

Archaeologists excavating an early Medieval cemetery in Austria uncovered the remains of a 6th century middle-aged man who’d had his left foot and ankle amputated. Evidence of a prosthetic device was found where his missing appendage would have been, this included stains left by a long since deteriorated wooden object, an iron ring used to stabilise the device, and dark staining on the lower leg bones that suggests leather straps were used to attach the prosthesis.

Meanwhile in Turpan, China, archaeologists discovered the remains of a 2,200 year old male buried with an elaborately designed prosthetic leg. Made from poplar, the leg had holes along each side to allow for leather straps to attach the prosthesis to the man’s own leg. The base was carved into a cylindrical shape, wrapped with a scrapped ox horn and then tipped with a horse-hoof, presumably to increase the grip and prevent extensive wear from use.

An ancient nine-inch metal screw found in the 2600-year-old mummy of an Egyptian priest Usermontu’s leg became a worldwide sensation. The discovery was made in 1996. Dr. Wilfred Griggs, Egyptologist and a professor of ancient scripture at Brigham Young University was doing research on mummy DNA in the six resident mummies on display in the Museum, when an X-ray revealed a metal screw near the kneecap of Usermontu. (“DNA Research Conducted on Egyptian Museum Mummies,” Rosicrucian Digest, 1995)

Archaeologists working on the resting place in an ancient cemetery near Turpan – northwest China – found that the unusual prosthetic was fitted after the man’s knee became unusable. The team from Academia Turfanica wrote in the journal Chinese archaeology: "The excavators soon came to find that the left leg of the male occupant is deformed, with the patella, femur and tibia [fused] together and fixed at 80 [degrees].” They added that his deformity would have made it hard for him to manoeuvre or ride a horse as he was unable to straighten his left leg. The team said: "[It was] made of poplar wood; it has seven holes along the two sides with leather tapes for attaching it to the deformed leg.

Indirect textual evidences, e.g. the Hegesistratus story recorded by Herodotus (484–425 BC) about an artificial wooden foot, suggest that foot prostheses were already known in the Graeco-Roman world in the fifth century BC3. The oldest prosthesis of a big toe was found in Thebes, Egypt and dated around 950–710 BC. So far the oldest preserved leg-prosthesis assigned to a man’s skeleton with his right leg missing from the mid-calf was discovered in Capua, Italy, in 1885 and dated to circa 300 BC.1 The ‘Capua leg’ had a wooden core and luxurious bronze sheeting, indicating the owner’s wealthy status. Its functionality has remained uncertain, as the device was lost during the Second World War.

Artificial Eyes:

According to a report by Maryam Tabeshian of the Cultural Heritage News Agency of Iran (December 10, 2006), researchers have excavated a 4,800-year-old artificial eye along with a skeleton and other findings from the Burnt City (located near the city of Zahedan in Iran’s Seistan-Baluchistan province in the southeast of iran).

From Dallas Eye:
The first in-socket artificial eyes made in the 15th century were made of gold with colored enamel. In the latter part of the sixteenth century, the Venetian glass artisans discovered a formula that could be tolerated inside the eye socket. These early glass eyes were crude, uncomfortable to wear, and very fragile. Even so, the Venetian method was considered the finest in the world. They kept their methods and materials secret until the end of the eighteenth century.

The world's earliest prosthetic eye was worn by an ancient Persian priestess. The female soothsayer stood 6' (1.82m) tall, and the mesmerizing effects of the golden eyeball would have convinced those who saw it that she could see into the future. "It must have glittered spectacularly, conferring on the woman a mysterious and supernatural gaze," said leader of the Italian team Lorenzo Costantini, adding, "She must have been a very striking and exotic figure." 

The priestess lived 5,000 years ago in what is now Iran, where her skeleton was unearthed in 2006 by Iranian and Italian archaeologists excavating an ancient necropolis at Shahr-i-Sokhta ["Burnt City"] in the Sistan desert. The eyeball was made of a lightweight material thought to be derived from bitumen paste and later determined to consist of a mixture of natural tar and animal fat. Lines had been engraved radiating from the iris and gold that had been applied in a thin layer over the surface. A tiny hole had been drilled on each side of the half-sphere, which had a diameter of just over 1" (2.5cm), so that it could be held in place with thread. 

The artificial eye, discovered in an ancient grave, was in the left eye socket of the woman. The archeology team estimated the age of the eye between 2900 and 2800 BC. This artificial eye should be considered as the first ocular prosthesis in the medical history. 

From Fox News:
A 5,000-year-old golden artificial eye that once stared out mesmerisingly from the face of a female soothsayer or priestess in ancient Persia has been unearthed by Iranian and Italian archaeologists. The eyeball — the earliest artificial eye found — would have transfixed those who saw it, convincing them that the woman — thought to have been strikingly tall — had occult powers and could see into the future, archaeologists said. It was found by Mansour Sajjadi, leader of the Iranian team, which has been excavating an ancient necropolis at Shahr-i-Sokhta in the Sistan desert on the Iranian-Afghan border for nine years. Italian archaeologists said yesterday that the prophetess had also been buried with an ornate bronze hand mirror, which she presumably used to check her “startling appearance”.

Further study showed it's made of bitumen and discovered traces of gold and colour. In it's original condition, the eye was white with an iris and pupil. The superb skills of manufacturer used fine gold wire to represent the capillaries! Triangles were traced emerging from the iris. The effect must have been fascinating at a time of superstition and beliefs in seers, prophets and oracles. 

The 5,000 year-old eye was unearthed two years ago and is believed to be the oldest prosthetic in the world. Made of natural tar and animal fat, the eye was placed inside the left eye socket of a 28- to 32-year-old woman. 

However, French surgeon Ambroise Paré (1510-90) could have laid claim to be the father of facial prosthetics. He was the first to describe the use of artificial eyes and constructed them from enamelled gold, silver, porcelain and glass. Paré made indwelling eyes (the “hypoblephara”) but also external devices retained with wire attachments (the “ekblephara”), as surgical removal of the eyeball was rare until the 19th century. Doubtless Paré’s prostheses were impressive to look at and highly desirable, but must also have been heavy, quite fragile and extremely expensive. An important figure in the history of artificial eyes from Germany was Ludwig Müller-Uri (1811-88), a maker of doll’s eyes, who developed glass for prosthetic use with local people. In 1868 in collaboration with his nephew Friedrich Müller-Uri a new form of glass called Cryolite was developed. 

As far back as the 5th c. BC Roman and Egyptian priests were making eyes from painted clay, which were attached to a cloth and worn over and outside the socket, in front of the eyelids. This type is known in Greek as the ekblepharon. 

from the 26th Dynasty age to the Dark/Middle age (500–1500 ad) the making of artificial eyes was largely abandoned. It was not until the renaissance period (1400–1700 ad) that artificial eyes saw a resurgence. The 16th century saw artificial eyes being fitted in the socket and experimentation with materials. Ambroise Paré, a French surgeon, described two types of artificial eyes: the 'Hypoblephara', which fitted underneath the eyelid, and the 'Ekblephara' which fitted externally: both of which were expensive, heavy, painful to wear and lacked the moist quality of a normal eye.

From Fox News:
Lorenzo Costantini, leader of the Italian group, said the eyeball still had traces of the gold that had been applied in a thin layer over the surface. On either side of it two tiny holes had been drilled, through which a fine thread, perhaps also gold, had held the eyeball in place. Analaysis suggested that the woman may have suffered from an abscess on her eyelid because of long-term contact with the golden eyeball.

For as long as medical intervention has been needed to remove limbs there has been a demand for prosthetic body parts. Over the centuries artificial limbs have evolved into works of bionic and artistic innovation. So when archaeologists unearth the man-made body parts used in ancient times the discovery serves as a reminder of how far medicine and technology have come.

Ancient Dentures:

Of the so-called 'prosthetic appliances' that have been documented from ancient Egypt, the best known example consists of a mandibular second molar connected by gold wire to a worn third molar. It was discovered at Giza, near Cairo in a burial shaft dating to approximately 2,500 BC and importantly not found attached to a skull. The dental report at the time stated that judging by the colour and anatomic form of the teeth they belonged to the same individual. Additionally, as the roots of the third molar were very absorbed, due to a probable inflammatory process, the tooth had become mobile, and so in an attempt to stabilise it, it had been attached to its neighbouring tooth. 

The third and final appliance was excavated from Tura el-Asmant, and was found attached to a skull, the only one from ancient Egypt to be found in situ. It was dated to the Greek (Ptolemaic) period of ancient Egypt (332–330 BC), and was described as a bridge whose single pontic was a right maxillary central incisor. It was fixed into place by a silver wire passing through two holes that had been drilled mesio-distally through the crown of the tooth, whilst the exact means of connection to the adjacent teeth is unknown.

Screw-in teeth are not a feat of modern dentistry. Archaeological evidence suggests the ancient Chinese used bamboo pegs to replace lost teeth. The purpose of these early implants was much the same as today – to restore an aesthetic smile (in life or after death perhaps) – but rather than being made from titanium they were fabricated from other materials. Dental implants have also been dated back to the Maya in 600 AD. Ancient Egyptian and Celtic remains have revealed precious metals, ivory and even other human teeth used in their implants.

Proving prehistoric man’s ingenuity, researchers have found that dental drilling dates back 9,000 years. Primitive dentists drilled nearly perfect holes into teeth of live patients between 5500 and 7000 B.C. Researchers recently carbondated at least nine skulls with 11 drill holes found in a graveyard in Pakistan. This means dentistry is at least 4,000 yrs older than first thought.